Group - 11 - Wireless Connectivity

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What is Wireless Connectivity?


Wireless - Term describing communication that requires no wire between two communicating points.
Connectivity - The ability to connect communications systems to exchange data or share resources.
Wireless Connectivity - Wireless connectivity involves all the new wireless devices and technology. It brings in all the new ways of collaboration, mobile, so that now we can manipulate, share and shape our digital content from anywhere, with anyone totally mobilely.

Wireless can be divided into some groups such as:
  • fixed wireless -- the operation of wireless devices or systems in homes and offices, and in particular, equipment connected to the Internet via specialized modems
  • Mobile wireless -- the use of wireless devices or systems aboard motorized, moving vehicles; examples include the automotive cell phone and PCS (personal communications services)
  • Portable wireless -- the operation of autonomous, battery-powered wireless devices or systems outside the office, home, or vehicle; examples include handheld cell phones and PCS units
  • IR wireless -- the use of devices that convey data via IR (infrared) radiation; employed in certain limited-range communications and control systems



- Wireless LAN


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A wireless LAN or WLAN is a wireless local area network, which is the linking of two or more computers without using wires. WLAN utilizes spread-spectrum technology based on radio waves to enable communication between devices in a limited area, also known as the basic service set. This gives users the mobility to move around within a broad coverage area and still be connected to the network.




Wireless Network Types
When we look at Wi-Fi specifically, which is what most of the jobs out there pertain to today, and the newest and hottest technology, there are 4 major types of wireless choices.
1999 - 802.11b
As of right now, 802.11b costs the least, and is the type that is most common on college campuses, homes and businesses. Has a range of about 150 feet, and transfers at 11 Mbps @ 2.4 GHz. 32 users per access point. (LOTS OF AP's for COLLEGES). AP: $55-160 Card: $30-90
2001 - 802.11a
Not compatible with 802.11b, range of 75 feet. 64 users per access point. Not widely used. Mostly used in large corporations, where many users canexternal image index_speed12162002.gif access a AP in a small area. AP: $100-130 Card: $100
2003 - 802.11g
Backwards compatible with 802.11b, 64 users per 'g' access point. G AP's have a range of 150 feet. 'G' spots are not very popular since the technology is new, but the g card can be used at 802.11b spots. Big Benefit. AP: $130-200 Card: $80-130
2003 - 802.11a/g
a/g spots have the largest load of 128 users per AP. The a/g card is backwards compatible with b, a, and g since it houses all the technologies in one card. a/g spots are rare, but the card is backwards compatible with every Wi-Fi technology. Most expensive technology, but well worth it. AP: $300 Card: $100

- Bluetooth


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Bluetooth is a radio standard and communications protocol primarily designed for low power consumption, with a short range (power class dependent: 1 metre, 10 metres, 100 metres) based around low-cost transceiver microchips in each device.
Bluetooth lets these devices communicate with each other when they are in range. The devices use a radio communications system, so they do not have to be in line of sight of each other, and can even be in other rooms, so long as the received transmission is powerful enough.
Class
Maximum Permitted Power (mW)
Maximum Permitted Power (dBm)
Range (approximate)
Class 1
100 mW
20 dBm
~100 meters
Class 2
2.5 mW
4 dBm
~10 meters
Class 3
1 mW
0 dBm
~1 meter

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Bluetooth is in a variety of new products such as phones, printers, modems, and headsets. Bluetooth is acceptable for situations when two or more devices are in close proximity with each other and don't require high bandwidth. Bluetooth is most commonly used with phones and hand-held computingexternal image index_bluetoothr1027200.gif devices, either using a Bluetooth headset or transferring files from phones/PDAs to computers. Since Bluetooth uses short-range radio frequencies, it is not as effective for setting up networks that can be accessed from remote locations as Wi-Fi is.
Bluetooth also simplified the discovery and setup of services. Wi-Fi is more analogous to the traditional Ethernet network and requires configuration to set up shared resources, transmit files, set up audio links (e.g. headsets and hands-free devices), whereas Bluetooth devices advertise all services they actually provide; this makes the utility of the service that much more accessible, without the need to worry about network addresses, permissions and all the other considerations that go with typical networks.

- Cell Phones



A mobile or cellular telephone is a long-range, portable electronic device for personal telecommunications over long distances.

Mobile phones and the network they operate under vary significantly from provider to provider, and nation to nation. However, all of them communicate through electromagnetic radio waves with a cell site base station, the antennas of which are usually mounted on a tower, pole, or building.
The phones have a low-power transceiver that transmits voice and data to the nearest cell sites, usually 5 to 8 miles (approximately 8 to 13 kilometres) away. When the cellular phone or data device is turned on, it registers with the mobile telephone exchange, or switch, with its unique identifiers, and will then be alerted by the mobile switch when there is an incoming telephone call. The handset constantly listens for the strongest signal being received from the surrounding base stations. As the user moves around the network, the mobile device will "handoff" to various cell sites during calls, or while waiting (idle) between calls it will reselect cell sites.external image 170px-Telstra_Mobile_Phone_Tower.jpg
Cell sites have relatively low-power (often only one or two watts) radio transmitters which broadcast their presence and relay communications between the mobile handsets and the switch. The switch in turn connects the call to another subscriber of the same wireless service provider or to the public telephone network, which includes the networks of other wireless carriers.
The dialogue between the handset and the cell site is a stream of digital data that includes digitized audio (except for the first generation analog networks). The technology that achieves this depends on the system which the mobile phone operator has adopted. Some technologies include AMPS for analog, and D-AMPS, CDMA2000, GSM, GPRS, EV-DO, and UMTS for digital communications. Each network operator has a unique radio frequency band.

ICT Profile - Bangladesh








- VOIP

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Voice over Internet Protocol, also called VoIP, IP Telephony, Internet telephony, Broadbandexternal image ho-img_skypecasts.png telephony, Broadband Phone and Voice over Broadband is the routing of voice conversations over the Internet or through any other IP-based network.

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Skype users essentially make telephone calls and video calls through their computer using Skype software and the internet. The basis of the system is free communication between users of Skype software; however the product also allows Skype users to communicate with users of regular landline and mobile telephones. This software is currently available free of charge and can be downloaded from the company website, but the software is proprietary and the Skype protocol is unpublished.
The main difference between Skype and other VoIP clients is that Skype operates on a peer-to-peer
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model, rather than the more traditional server-client model. The Skype user directory is entirely decentralised and distributed among the nodes in the network, which means the network can scale very easily to large sizes (currently just over 100 million users) without a complex and costly centralised infrastructure.
Skype also routes calls through other Skype peers on the network to ease the traversal of Symmetric NATs and firewalls. This, however, puts an extra burden on those who connect to the Internet without NAT, as their computers and network bandwidth may be used to route the calls of other users.




- Wireless Internet/Fixed Wirelesss


Wireless Internet is now provided by hundreds of Internet service providers. They either install a little dish or a high tower with a radio for a point to point link so that there is internet access where it is difficult or expensive to install wired connections. Wireless connections also make it easier since they do not have to install wires for every residence or office. Other companies also use wirelesss to create an intranet between their offices. An example of a system would be the motorola canopy. Many Cellphone companies use these fixed wireless devices to connect between their remote towers to main data centers or offices.



Background


Development of wireless connectivity for Bangladesh and the USA (Internet and mobile devices)


Bangladesh



The entire world uses cellphones, most of the cellphone providers in Bangladesh use 2.5G GSM except for Citycell which uses CDMA. The rest of the world have sort of moved on to higher speeds on phones using 3G which transfers at 1.5mbps per second onwards. Although bangladesh is coming up to faster speeds with EDGE which is 384 kbps to 1.5mbps. Cell phone providers major subscribers are mostly lower class people so they cannot afford to buy cell phones with video calls and other multimedia features. Bangladesh ISP's also provide wireless connections to people in remote places with high speed internet connections. Wireless LAN also plays a big role on the impact for education in Bangladesh. Two examples of schools in Bangladesh using wireless LAN in education are International School Dhaka and American International School Dhaka. These schools use WLAN to promote research in the classrooms and to share multimedia and work over a network. Voip is also another emerging development in Bangladesh, some companies are selling calling cards and they provide calls with VOIP on their servers.


USA

In the United States, most wireless phone companies provide a wireless connection to any body, anywhere. The most effective companies, such as Verizon or Cingular, offer features such as wireless internet, e-mail, texting, sending pictures, and, of course, phone calls. All of these are available on devices such as cell phones, tablets, and all-in-ones in which there is a regular cellular phone setup with a keyboard built in.
Wireless connectivity also pertains to connections without a person’s need to perform an action. RFID tags allow the wearer to be identified and positioned from anywhere. Today, these tags are used in anti-theft devices used in stores, for personal uses, and are now being introduced into travel. Though expensive, RFID tags have even been offered to be used in houses. When a person enters a room, the tag is read by a computer and the settings in the room, such as music, temperature, and lighting, are changed to fit that person’s needs. In travel, airports are beginning to use these tags for the movement of luggage.
Wireless connectivity is becoming more and more demanding as technology improves. The basis for the growth of this area of technology is mainly based on one concept: people want to do whatever they want, wherever they want. Being “connected” to everyone and everything is basically the concept of wireless connectivity.


Examples of current use and trends in this area


Bangladesh



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The mobile phone industry in Bangladesh is growing rapidly, and is making a significant contribution to economic development and employment generation. The number of mobile subscribers increased to 11 million in 2006, from 3.85 million in 2004, registering an impressive growth of 186%. Consequently, the country’s mobile telecom density went up to 6.7% from 2.75% during these few years. Among the five companies that are currently operating, Grameen Phone (in partnership with Telenor of Norway), which has the highest market share, more than doubled its customer base to over 6 million during this period. Other companies, which include Aktel, Banglalink, CityCell, and Teletalk, also experienced robust growth in terms of number of subscribers and customer revenue. A sixth operator, Warid Telecom, is preparing to enter the market after obtaining an operating license in December 2005. Telenor, Telekom Malaysia (TM), Orascom, Sing Tel, and UAE based Warid Telecom are amongst the main foreign companies that have invested in the mobile phone sector in Bangladesh. Despite rapid growth in the subscriber base in the past three years, there is still substantial scope for growth in the mobile industry as some 93% of the Mobile phone market growing rapidly population still do not subscribe to a mobile phone service. Indeed, industry analysts expect that the total number of cellular phone subscribers will double to over 20 million by 2007.

Below is a video with a cellphone user in Bangladesh


Cell Phones:

Operators
Description
Subscribers
Connection Type
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First and largest GSM Mobile company in Bangladesh having nation wide service coverage.
Over 6 million
GSM 900
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Government owned Teletalk limited starts its journey as the 5th mobile phone operator in the telecom arena of Bangladesh, creating huge enthusiasm and jubilation among the masses.
Over 0.2 million
GSM 900
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Nation wide mobile phone operator. Banglalink aims to understand peoples needs best and develop appropriate communication services to improve peoples life and make it simple.
Over 1.5 million
GSM 900
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Actel is a mobile operator in Bangladesh which concentrates on offering GSM communication services for private and corporate customer. Our intention is to promote the wireless lifestyle -the complete mobile society.
Over 2.6 million
GSM 900
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Pacific Bangladesh Telecom Limited, Pioneer in Cellular Phones in the subcontinent.
Over 0.5 million
CDMA
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RanksTel is one of the new PSTN Operators in Bangladesh. It has been awarded licence to operate initially in North-East and South-East zones of the country.
N/A
N/A
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Planned to deploy nationwide network by December 2006.
N/A
GSM 1800

Wireless LAN and Internet -


GrameenPhone, the largest mobile phone company in Bangladesh, pioneered a successful project to bring mobile phones to the country's villages and is now moving on to providing Internet access. After a successful pilot project, the company decided this month to set up 500 Internet access points, which it is calling community information centers, across Bangladesh by year-end.

The announcement came a week after the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Grameen Bank, the parent company of one of GrameenPhone's two corporate owners. The other is Telenor, the Norwegian telecommunications company.
The centers will be run by local entrepreneurs who will either invest their own money or be given access to small loans to cover set-up costs, which GrameenPhone estimates will be $800 to $1,400. The centers will be positioned to serve 15 villages and about 40,000 people and will have a computer, a Web cam, a printer, a scanner and other basic equipment. The Internet access will come by way of a connection to GrameenPhone's GSM mobile phone network, which can download data at about 128 kilobits per second, not quite broadband but faster than a dial-up connection.


USA




U.S. wireless companies are nearly all the same. Most wireless companies work off of two types of cellular towers. A combination all of the coverages of one type of tower across the nation forms a coverage area. The main competition between these companies, along with features and options, is having the most effective coverage over the most area.

Operator
Description
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Cingular has some of the newest, coolest phones. They are best known for having the fewest dropped calls of any network and uses this as their main marketing base. After buying AT&T, they changed their slogan to "We're Raising the Bar".
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Alltel is a company that has recently formed a calling plan called "My Circle" that allows a member to choose ten friends that he can call anytime for free regardless of the network that those people are on. Having one of the largest networks in the country, Alltel's phones are some of the most effective in rural areas.
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Verizon is a large company that provides every style of the newest phonesand offers a large coverage area. Their most used promotion is their "Network," allowing all members to call any other member for free. The large selection of Motorola phones that are offered by Verizon make its network one of the most effective in wireless conectivity.
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T-Mobile is a network with no special features exept that they offer planswith more available minutes than most other networks. Their slogan, "GetMore" is derived from this offer. Recently, though, T-Mobile has begun tooffer a feature similar to Alltel's allowing a member of the T-Moblie network to choose five friends to call for free regardless of their networks.
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Sprint is a company combined with Nextel. There are not very many outstanding features that Sprint has over other networks. One difference though is that Sprint's selection of devices is made by mostly Samsung. Sprint and Nextel is basically one company with two names.
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Nextel is a company that has been combined with Sprint. The main feature that Nextel uses for sales promotion are their famous walkie-talkie features on their phones. Even though Nextel uses Motorola phones, they offer different types than Cingular, Alltel, Verizon, and T-Mobile.


Videos



Atif's Video, International School Dhaka
Personal Video about cellphones in Bangladesh and the use of wireless connectivity in education.




Current News



RSS Feeds:


Bangladesh Mobile Blog

monjurmahmud's blog


    Collin's Blog


      Impact on Education



      Bangladesh


      Two examples of schools in Bangladesh using wireless LAN in education are International School Dhaka and American International School Dhaka. These schools use WLAN to promote research in the classrooms and to share multimedia and work over a network. Wireless now plays a big role at schools especially because nowadays everything we do in class in related to research which is done over the internet and wireless connection allows us to do it in an easier and more ergonomic way. A student can download homework sheets on a server in school using the wireless network and then print it on any printer in the school using no wires for easier accessibility if the student was absent or unable to attend a class. Moodle and open source online tool for schools is a growing program which is only sensible to use if the students in most of the school are equipped with laptops and wireless LAN connectivity.

      Below is an interview with the IT Manager of International School Dhaka with questions about wireless connectivity


      USA


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      Impact of Wireless Technology in School Education
      Wireless technology now takes hold in school districts in the United States. However, the biggest challenge for the teachers is to take student learning to a new level. Students of Brimley Area Public Schools are learning a new lesson in wireless technology. Brimley Area district is small and has fewer than 3,000 students. It has been spread over a geographic area that spans hundreds of miles. Teachers in the district say that students don't expect their educational learning to include such extravagant technology.
      However, after the arrival next-generation VoIP technology, the things are changing now. Now there is awareness among students and teachers about the wireless communication technology. Opportunities are opening up in Brimley. A statewide program called Learning without Limits provided Brimley administrators with sufficient money to remove the constraints of Ethernet ports. The program is now called as Freedom to Learn. It expands the district's network with wireless technology. Interestingly, each ninth-grader student received a laptop to use in class at home until the end of the school year. Last year, it has been expanded to the students studying in grades 6-12.
      The district took the step of putting laptops on mobile carts so that they could be transported between classrooms. Today, wireless technology is going strong in the district. There are several such districts in the United States where students, teachers and administrators have appreciated the benefits of wireless technology. The technology delivers Internet signals on airborne radio frequencies. Wireless networking allows users of all portable devices to move freely on a school's campus and stay connected to the Internet.
      Those districts who need to add portable classrooms, find the wireless technology more beneficial. It does not require any additional wires. Technologists who have made the switch to wireless say that eliminating the costs associated with wiring a traditional network can save thousands of dollars for a district.


      Impact on Employment



      Bangladesh


      In recent years, the mobile industry in Bangladesh has developed at an extraordinary rate. Today there are approximately ten million mobile customers and coverage extends to 90% of the population. With a population of 44 million (2005 figures), Bangladesh is the seventh most populous country in the world.

      Snapshot_2006-12-13_00-50-57.jpg
      Key findings from the study are as follows:
      • Almost a quarter of a million Bangladeshi depend on the mobile industry, directly and indirectly.
      • Mobile services contribute US$650 million to the economy every year.
      • Mobile services are good value for money when compared with other countries.
      • Mobile communications allow businesses to operate with greater efficiency.
      • For every additional 0 percentage points of mobile penetration, the annual GDP growth rate is increased by approximately 0.6%.
      >
      * Higher mobile penetration will assist Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Increasing penetration by % increases FDI as a proportion of GDP by 0.5%.
      >
      • The poorest citizens benefit most from mobile services.
      • Mobile services improve social cohesion, assist in reducing the digital divide, improve access to healthcare and can help improve users’ quality of life.

      USA






      Future Impact of Hurricane Katrina On IT Employment
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      Employment of IT workers in August grew by 4,100 to 3,541,100, a .12% gain from the previous month, according to an index of IT employment developed by the National Association of Computer Consultant Businesses – the fifth consecutive month of IT employment gains. Hurricane Katrina occurred after the survey period for the August employment report and did not affect the report, but could have at least a short-term impact on IT employment.
      "Information technology plays a significant role in the energy and communications sectors," said Mark Roberts (pictured), NACCB CEO. "We anticipate some change in the number of IT professionals involved in getting the infrastructures back to speed and operating efficiently."
      "Although the extent of the damage to the entire infrastructure of the affected region is still being assessed along with the human toll," Roberts continued, "we know that the infrastructures of the energy and communications sectors were badly damaged.

      After a review of the data available to us, we conclude that the economic impact of the US
      wireless telecom industry in 2004 included the following:
      • 3.6 million jobs are directly and indirectly dependent on the US wireless telecommunications
      industry;
      • the industry generated $118 billion in revenues and contributed $92 billion to the US GDP;
      • the industry is currently slightly smaller than the computer, automobiles, publishing and
      agriculture industry segments;
      • the wireless telecom industry is expected to become a larger sector of the US economy thangrowth2.jpg
      the agriculture and automobile sectors within 5 years, based on the wireless industry’s
      current 15% annual growth rate;
      • the industry and its employees paid $63 billion to the US Government, including federal, state
      and local fees and taxes;
      • the use and availability of wireless telecom services and products created a $157 billion
      consumer surplus which is the difference between what end-users are willing to pay for a
      service and what they are actually having to pay.
      To put the findings of this report in context:
      • 2.5% of all jobs in the United States depend on the wireless industry;
      • If the wireless telecom industry was a country, its economy would be bigger than that of
      Egypt, and would rank as the 46th largest country in the world, as measured by GDP.
      We estimate that the use of wireless telecom services in the US generated a consumer surplus of
      $157 billion per annum for 2004


      Resources:



      http://www.velki.com/link.asp?cat=148 - links to mobile vendors



      Work Cited:


      http://www.google.com.bd/url?sa=X&start=6&oi=define&q=http://www.elkproducts.com/support/training/t6_electrical_terms.htm&usg=__uo4Nwt7ytof8
      b6W0mmkv6M=

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mobile_phone

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/skype

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/wireless








      Done By: Atif, Collin





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